Prevention Equipment

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Note: all detail are given for information only, monitoring and prescription are required to undertake a long journey. (2011 - 2012)

Vaccinations

Vaccinations may be required (including yellow fever for some countries in Africa or South America) or recommended by country and possibly the first itinerary of the traveler.

Make a checkup with his doctor to establish a "planning" of vaccinations, some with a booster dose one year later. For travel, the international vaccination book (pictured left) is essential and the inclusion of vaccination against yellow fever is mandatory.

in France, vaccinations current, whatever the situation or the country of destination, must be updated: Tetanus, Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis and Measles possible.

Vaccination against yellow fever is required for a stay in an area endemic (tropical regions of Africa and of South America, even in the absence of administrative obligations). In France, the injection should be performed in a vaccination center approved by the Ministry of Health.

One injection, at least 10 days before departure, at the latest. From 11 July 2016 the certificate of vaccination against yellow fever is valid for the life of the person vaccinated.

Vaccination against the hepatitis A is recommended for travelers to stay in a country where sanitation is precarious. One injection, 15 days before departure and a booster 6 to 12 months later. The average duration of protection is 10 years.

   
Vaccination against invasive meningococcal disease is recommended for persons traveling to an endemic area or in any other area where there is an epidemic in terms of close and prolonged contact with the local population. The current outbreaks of invasive meningococcal infections is available on the site WHO web

Vaccination against typhoid fever is recommended for travelers whose stay is extended or in poor conditions in countries where sanitation is precarious. Injection, at least 15 days before departure for a protection period of 3 years .

The Hepatitis B is a serious disease that can develop into chronic infection (cirrhosis and liver cancer). The Hepatitis B is transmitted primarily through sexual contact or blood contamination. Vaccination is currently the most effective way to protect themselves. Two injections spaced a month with a single booster 6 months later. The average duration of protection is 10 years.

Vaccination against rabies is recommended for travelers whose stay is prolonged in isolation in a high-risk countries (developing countries, except for some islands). There should be three injections on D0, D7, D21 or D28 and a booster 1 year later. Duration of protection: 5 years

Glaxo Laboratories have published on their website a brochure, in french "Partez tranquille" (quiet part) which includes vaccinations and antimalarial treatment according to each destination.
   

Mosquitoes

"Malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito, Anopheles (left photo), also infected after biting a man infected with malaria: the female, taking the blood meal needed for its laying, injects the parasite to its host. The males do not bite. " Source www.pasteur.fr

They usually bite between sunset and sunrise. Whatever the chosen treatment for malaria, it can not be issued with a prescription. The duration of treatment (before entering a contaminated area and after leaving that area) will be decided by the doctor depending on the country visited and antimalarial treatment prescribed.

The treatment should not obscure the protection against mosquito bites (repellents, mosquito nets, etc..). For tropical destinations, it is recommended:
- To protect against insect bites with repellents for daytime activities;
- Wear light clothing impregnated and spanning (light and wide clothing, long sleeves, pants and closed shoes) for the evening;
- Sleeping under a mosquito net impregnated with insecticide. The treated net provides the best protection against mosquito bites by his nocturnal effect of both insecticide and insect repellent.

   
   

Can be purchased in pharmacies or in specialty stores already impregnated mosquito nets, or immerse yourself with impregnation kits also sold in pharmacies (the recommended products are deltamethrin and permethrin). Please ask your pharmacist, this information is communicated in 2009 and may change.

In homes, insecticide spray or diffusers can be used and, outside or in a room ventilated, smoke streamers.

Essential to have with itself a test kit for rapid detection of malaria. This kit of 10 tests is reliable, practical and efficient results in 15 minutes. Learn more

The mosquitoes that transmit encephalitis viruses like Japanese encephalitis in tropical Asia, belonging to the genus Culex and usually bite at night. The recommended protections are identical to those shown to protect against malaria.

Click on the map of risk areas - Malaria to enlarge

     
2 Avril 2013 : Faso Soap, un savon contre le paludisme
   
Two students from the International Institute of Water Engineering and Environment (2IE), Gérard Niyondiko (Burundi) and Moctar Dembele (Burki Faso) won the first prize of the Global Social Venture Competition (GSVC) through their invention, the Faso soap, an anti-mosquito soap that repels mosquitoes by smell.

Thanks to one of its ingredients, it also kills the larvae, preventing the proliferation of mosquitoes in stagnant water.
   
Made with local products, this product offers hope to effectively reduce the spread of malaria in Africa
     
This prize will enable them to start their own business to market the soap at the same price as a normal soap. In fact, composed of citronella, marigold, shea and other ingredients kept secret, the Faso Soap is made ​​from 100% local resources to be accessible to all.

 
New: Malaria Prevention

The continued growth of drug resistance of malaria and very costly to some recent malaria suggest pride of place of Doxycycline in the prevention of malaria. In addition to many diseases can be prevented travel by this antibiotic.

Doxycycline (International Nonproprietary Name or INN) is a molecule of the family of cyclins used as antibiotic drug.
     

Prophylaxis of malaria may be in some cases the competence of Doxycycline.

This molecule is internationally recognized and recommended for areas of multidrug resistance (forest and border areas of South-Eastern Asia).

It has been less studied elsewhere. The French army used several years for its troops in Black Africa (several tens of thousands of prescriptions during the long time): efficacy and observance are considered excellent and side effects are very slight.

However, its use in children under eight years old, pregnant and lactating women is forbidden.

Doxycycline may cause a decline in efficiency of contraceptive pills, so extra precautions must be taken.

Warning: doxycycline can cause skin photosensitivity. Evaluate with your doctor! For a long time the doxycycline are "generic" and marketed by 13 laboratories.
 

Research both in pharmacology for treatment that vaccination for prophylaxis are at a pace more accelerated thanks to sponsors like the Malaria Vaccine Initiative, which aims to develop a vaccine for the decade 2010-2020, or NGOs such as MSF (Doctors Without Borders).

Source Astrium - Institut Pasteur - Esculape - Agence de la santé publique du Canada.

The mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus and chikungunya virus belonging to the genus Aedes and usually bite during the day. To protect themselves from mosquitoes that bite during the day, you should use repellents skin. These products contain an active ingredient that repels insects without killing them. They are applied to all parts of the body with little or no coverage. It is necessary to comply with the instructions of use (application, duration of protection, ...)

Ticks can transmit disease through bites, such as Lyme disease. Ticks can hang on humans when he moves in infested areas (especially forest). It is therefore imperative to search for ticks on themselves after any walk outside and quickly remove the tick. For this, we can use a fine-tipped (schema on right). The wound must be disinfected after the removal of the tick.
 
Generally, it is recommended not to touch animals and / or plants that are not known. It may be poisonous plants or animals carrying rabies.
User manual (pictured right): Insert the hook on the side of the tick (1). Turn slowly without pulling (2) until the tick detaches.
   

Traveler's diarrhea

This is usually a benign acute diarrheal phase, resolved spontaneously within 1 to 3 days. More often linked to consumption of solid food beverage, traveler's diarrhea or turista, is mostly due to infections or toxic bacterial infections.

Preventive measures:

- Wash hands
- Avoid beverages at risk, pressed fruit, local water bottles and non-encapsulated and ice cube.
- Avoid ice cream.
- Do not eat that meat, fish, shellfish well cooked and hot.
- Wash and peel fruits and vegetables.
- Do not consume raw milk or dairy artisan
- Avoid cooked foods that are left at room temperature too long.
- Avoid food sold on the sly in the street.

It should drink lots of water, rehydration is essential (oral rehydration solution (ORS) or if Coca-Cola without bubbles).

Milder forms of the adult can be reduced by taking anti-diarrheal. Before departure ask your doctor to explain the difference between an anti-diarrheal Anti-secretory (type Racecadotril as Tiorfan ®) and anti-diarrheal (such as Loperamide Imodium ®), and in any case take the one or the other.

   
Acute mountain sickness

Relates excursions and hiking at altitude (8,000 feet). A rule: "do not go too fast, too high."

AMS (acute mountain sickness) occurs most often from 3500 m. The MAM regresses with acclimatization and disappears immediately on the descent. It is advisable to seek expert medical advice before departure. He may recommend a test of hypoxia. For us in the Paris region this test is performed at the hospital in Bobigny (service doctors and Richalet Rathat in 2009)

The symptoms of high altitude are related to the hypoxia, resulting in lower partial pressure of oxygen. They arise especially as the ascent is rapid. It should leave a few days for the body to adapt to these environmental conditions.

The symptoms of AMS are headache, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, peripheral edema.

This condition can progress to two serious complications involving life-threatening pulmonary edema and cerebral edema high altitude.
   
Prevention: Make acclimation levels - regularly drink in small sips, but in large quantities, at least 3 liters a day - do not go over 300 to 400 m per day between 3000 and 4500 meters above sea level - lower than sleep maximum altitude reached during the day.
 

Three rules for treating AMS: First , walk down - Second, walk down and Third walk down. This is the only effective treatment to 100%. You should climb down 500 meters at least and more if necessary.

Coca tea, the infusion magic?


In Andean cultures, the leaves of the coca shrub (Coca Erythroxylon) since time immemorial are chewed or sucked with a pinch of alkaline ashes and used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant as well as to increase endurance at high altitudes.

Coca tea, also called mate de coca, is a tisane (herbal tea) made using the leaves of the coca plant, which is native to northwestern South America. It is made either by submerging the coca leaf or dipping a tea bag in hot water. The tea is most commonly consumed in the Andes mountain range, particularly Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. It is greenish yellow in color and has a mild bitter flavor similar to green tea with a more organic sweetness. Traditional medical uses of coca are foremost as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, and thirst. It is considered particularly effective against altitude sickness.

The mate de coca and cocaine are two completely different products. Cocaine is derived from coca leaves, but it is needed several kilos of leaves and some chemical products and processes to extract a few grams of cocaine. The coca tea or mate de coca is a 100% natural, made from coca leaves no chemical or special treatment. The coca tea does not contain cocaine and does not create dependency.

19 september 2006, president Morales, at the United Nations General Assembly, holding a coca leaf, saying: «The coca leaf is symbolic of Andean culture, of the Andean environment and of the hopes of peoples. It is not acceptable that the coca leaf be legal for Coca-Cola and illegal for medicinal consumption not only in our country but throughout the world.

Is it recommended to take Diamox as a preventative?

We read many reviews on one treatment of altitude sickness (according to some it is preventive, to other it is curative or by other one it is needless): acetazolamide (Diamox). Diamox ® can be started from 24 to 48 hours before a climb for those likely to develop symptoms. Note that the Diamox ® has marketing authorization for this indication. However, opinions are very divided on this issue. Better to opt for a gradual climb. However, it is strongly recommended to bring this drug that can be taken if necessary. But that does not excuse to stop the rise at the onset of symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS).

CAUTION: We are neither a doctor nor accustomed to high altitudes, we note these points just for information. See for yourself!

Consult your dentist for a check a few weeks before leaving. A cavity can always ruin a trip!
 
 
  Prevention Equipment

Women Travel

Traveling with Baby